Freight transport is simply the physical act of shipping goods and commodities using an organized system of carriers. The word shipping originally only referred to ocean shipping, but in modern American English, it’s been broadened to also refer to commercial transport by air or land. In freight transport, an individual or group of businesses transports goods from one point in the world to another. The system can either be road based or air transport depending on the service provider, the commodity and the climatic conditions of the port or location. The latter two forms of freight transportation are more popular than the former. Road freight transport can be either rail or road transport.
Road freight transportation is often used to move bulk products such as coal, petroleum and other mineral fuels, perishable goods, manufactured foods and household goods. It’s also used for items that require long distance movement such as manufactured cars, chemicals and machinery. Air freight transportation can be used for smaller quantities of goods in a short time. However, air freight is used mostly for international deliveries of goods, whereas land freight is more applicable for local deliveries within the country or region. Air freight is most commonly used for intra-regional and international shipments of agricultural products, manufactured goods, perishable items, perishables, bulk cargoes and refrigerated products. There are also cargo flights for small scale and uncontested deliveries of fruits, vegetables, fish, machinery and electrical appliances.
Freight transport systems are broken down into three categories: road freight transport, rail freight transport and air freight transport. In order to facilitate trade, many communities operate local road freight transport systems. However, the increasing congestion of roadways and the increasing environmental concern over air and water pollution have forced many communities to switch to rail and air transport. Most countries now have an integrated transport system involving road freight transport and rail freight transport.